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Table 4 The relationship between hours worked, gender and childcare, elderly care and other outdoor air pollutants in Santiago

From: Too polluted to work? The gendered correlates of air pollution on hours worked

Dependant Elderly Children
Pollutant PM10 PM2.5 SO2 NO2 O3 CO
Poll. 0.0202 (0.0050)*** 0.0062 (0.0110) − 0.0392 (0.0191)* − 0.0096 (0.0158) 0.0428 (0.0211)* 0.0923 (0.2314)
Poll. × female − 0.0269 (0.0028)*** − 0.0144 (0.0075) − 0.0557 (0.0122)*** − 0.0065 (0.0105) 0.0372 (0.0131)** − 0.2066 (0.1424)
Poll. × female × dependent 0.0209 (0.0149) − 0.0254 (0.0092)** 0.0374 (0.0140)** − 0.0154 (0.0117) − 0.0112 (0.0163) − 0.5799 (0.1768) ***
Poll. × dependent − 0.0081 (0.0076) 0.0102 (0.0058) − 0.0339 (0.0060)*** − 0.0096 (0.0061) 0.0252 (0.0108)* 0.1934 (0.1111)
Female − 1.9965 (0.2035) *** − 2.5897 (0.2348)*** − 2.8048 (0.1385)*** − 2.8961 (0.2628)*** − 3.6705 (0.1993)*** − 3.0338 (0.1125) ***
Dependent − 0.4175 (0.5606) 0.8048 (0.1827)*** 1.5405 (0.1101)*** 1.0371 (0.1487)*** 0.7564 (0.1513)*** 1.0504 (0.0951) ***
Female × dependent − 0.4290 (1.1012) − 0.2680 (0.2862) − 1.6427 (0.1794)*** − 0.3217 (0.2939) − 0.9012 (0.2348)*** − 0.8932 (0.1422)***
Poll. × age − 0.0001 (0.0001) 0.0001 (0.0002) 0.0016 (0.0004)*** 0.0005 (0.0003) − 0.0013 (0.0004)*** − 0.0034 (0.0044)
Poll. × agriculture and mining − 0.0115 (0.0098) − 0.0223 (0.0223) 0.0661 (0.0346) 0.0254 (0.0284) − 0.0900 (0.0324)** − 0.7858 (0.4046)
Poll. × manufacturing − 0.0052 (0.0034) − 0.0130 (0.0065) * 0.0210 (0.0127) − 0.0156 (0.0101) − 0.0017 (0.0111) − 0.1508 (0.1359)
Poll. × construction − 0.0243 (0.0036) *** − 0.0294 (0.0076)*** 0.0234 (0.0127) − 0.0324 (0.0111)** 0.0354 (0.0132) ** − 1.0496 (0.1539)***
Age 0.0627 (0.0077) *** 0.0687 (0.0067) 0.0445 (0.0039) *** 0.0641 (0.0078) 0.0766 (0.0058)*** 0.0603 (0.0032)***
Agriculture and mining 1.6786 (0.7006)* 1.6365 (0.6551) * 0.8238 (0.3435)* 1.1083 (0.7093) 2.2368 (0.5185)*** 1.1929 (0.2820)***
Manufacturing 0.6557 (0.2429) ** 0.6852 (0.2051)*** 0.1858 (0.1137) 0.7504 (0.2490) ** 0.2866 (0.1747) 0.3342 (0.0949)***
Construction 1.2853 (0.2722) *** 0.7027 (0.2360)** −0.7260 (0.1468) *** 0.7628 (0.2757) ** − 0.9738 (0.2035)*** − 0.0195 (0.1196)
N 255,419 177,035 196,534 115,865 253,670 254,420
R-squared 0.0301 0.0311 0.0319 0.0280 0.0315 0.0322
Year, quarter, area fixed effects YES YES YES YES YES YES
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001
  2. Notes: Robust standard errors in parenthesis. The variables included in each model depend on the column. Column names indicate the pollutants included as independent variables and in the interactions (Poll. variables, to be replaced by PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NO2, O3 or CO) as well as the dependent being cared for (Dependent variables, to be replaced by elderly or children). PM10 and PM2.5 measured in microgrammes per cubic metre; SO2, O3 and NO2 measured in parts per billion; CO measured in parts per million
  3. Source: Own calculation based on EOD and SINCA, 1997–2017