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Table 2 Year, seasonal and geographic variability in pollution, employment, hours worked and care

From: Too polluted to work? The gendered correlates of air pollution on hours worked

  Year Month (seasonal) Area (geographic)
  1998 2002 2005 2010 2014 Mar. Jun. Sep. Dec. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Pollution and weather
 PM10 (μg/m3) 90.3 74.7 67.7 58.5 54.4 69.9 93.4 57.8 54.0 64.5 77.7 77.0 72.6 67.2 50.9 73.5 74.5
 PM2.5 (μg/m3)   34.8 23.9 23.2 23.6 22.5 44.5 23.5 18.6 26.8 28.7 28.4 29.6 25.9 22.9 31.1 29.2
 NO2 (ppb) 4.6 3.6 2.2 10.6 9.8 4.4 8.8 5.6 3.7 8.3 3.4 3.2 3.7 3.6 2.3 3.0 21.5
 SO2 (ppb)    17.7 20.3 20.6 17.1 34.8 20.1 12.3 20.3 24.9 24.6 20.3 29.8 19.9 20.9 21.5
 CO (ppm) 0.67 0.63 0.00 0.30 0.23 0.09 1.29 0.30 0.01 0.33 0.57 0.55 0.47 0.45 0.13 0.55 0.46
 O3 (ppb) 16.9 14.9 18.5 14.0 11.1 19.2 5.3 13.3 21.4 16.2 13.3 13.2 15.0 11.7 17.1 15.1 14.3
 Rainfall (mm) 0.00 2.83 0.00 6.48 18.45 2.35 11.47 6.76 0.00 5.27 4.95 5.06 5.25 5.17 5.65 5.68 5.65
 Temperature (°C) 15.2 13.9 18.5 13.4 12.7 19.0 9.3 11.7 19.6 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.7 14.6
Health (Google Trends)
 Flu    10.0 3.3 3.0 2.9 9.1 3.2 1.4 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.6 4.4 4.1 4.2 4.3
 Influenza    11.0 6.8 7.0 6.0 15.5 5.3 1.6 7.6 7.4 7.6 8.0 7.6 7.3 7.6 7.8
 Fever    8.0 11.0 16.7 11.6 18.0 13.8 10.1 13.4 12.8 13.0 13.4 13.3 13.5 13.8 13.9
 Common cold    51.0 48.4 63.1 48.1 65.8 43.9 24.1 46.8 45.0 45.6 46.7 46.5 47.8 47.8 48.0
Employment and social
 Employment (male) 66.9 62.3 64.8 64.6 66.3 64.4 63.6 64.3 65.3 63.4 62.6 63.8 65.7 64.5 62.4 65.3 66.4
 Employment (female) 37.5 36.1 40.2 40.5 45.1 40.1 39.8 40.5 41.8 43.9 35.3 35.3 37.9 38.8 47.9 44.3 40.8
 Hours worked (male) 50.2 48.4 47.4 45.9 45.2 47.3 46.8 46.8 47.5 46.4 47.9 47.7 47.5 47.6 45.2 47.2 47.1
 Hours worked (female) 46.6 45.0 43.0 42.6 41.2 43.3 43.1 43.0 43.6 42.4 42.9 42.9 42.7 43.4 46.3 43.2 42.0
 Household income 7.04 6.11 7.15 7.03 9.23 7.31 7.25 8.26 8.59 9.30 6.09 5.64 6.63 6.19 13.60 7.48 7.57
 Children in home 0.51 0.51 0.54 0.54 0.57 0.53 0.55 0.55 0.56 0.54 0.51 0.62 0.56 0.56 0.52 0.46 0.60
 Elderly in home 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.07 0.07 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.06 0.04
  1. Notes: Employment (in percentage) and hours worked per week correspond to the reference weeks in the EOD. Household income corresponds to the income the month prior to the survey, in 100 thousand 2016 CLP. Pollution and temperature estimates are averages for the week prior to the reference week of the EOD; rainfall estimates are the sum of total rainfall for the reference week. Flu, influenza, fever and common cold estimates correspond to Google Trends’ monthly estimates for March, June, September and December Internet searches from Chile for the terms “gripe”, “influenza”, “fiebre” and “resfrío”. Google Trends’ data available from 2004 onwards only. Selected years shown for clarity of exposure
  2. Source: Own elaboration from SINCA, EOD and Google Trends