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Table 7 Outcome regression results

From: The time-varying role of the family in student time use and achievement

  Math Reading   Free Computer TV
  score score Homework reading use watching
Lagged outcome 0.769 0.735 0.193 0.409 0.167 0.403
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Mother’s education
 High school 0.025 0.027 0.020 0.004 0.018 −0.013
  (0.003) (0.004) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008)
 Some college 0.043 0.045 0.034 0.006 0.030 −0.019
  (0.005) (0.005) (0.009) (0.009) (0.010) (0.011)
 College 0.068 0.070 0.059 0.025 0.017 −0.072
  (0.007) (0.007) (0.013) (0.013) (0.014) (0.017)
 Graduate school 0.075 0.082 0.061 0.037 0.029 −0.108
  (0.009) (0.010) (0.017) (0.017) (0.018) (0.022)
Father’s education
 High school 0.026 0.029 0.022 0.003 0.005 −0.009
  (0.004) (0.004) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007) (0.008)
 Some college 0.038 0.039 0.027 0.012 0.008 −0.035
  (0.005) (0.005) (0.009) (0.009) (0.010) (0.012)
 College 0.064 0.068 0.057 0.030 0.011 −0.071
  (0.007) (0.007) (0.013) (0.012) (0.013) (0.016)
 Graduate school 0.064 0.078 0.069 0.042 0.028 −0.082
  (0.008) (0.009) (0.016) (0.016) (0.017) (0.021)
Black −0.205 −0.233 −0.124 −0.092 0.045 0.371
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.003)
Hispanic −0.151 −0.230 −0.098 −0.117 −0.010 0.081
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002) (0.002) (0.003)
Other race 0.096 −0.053 0.063 0.075 0.175 −0.021
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) (0.005)
Multiracial −0.064 −0.068 −0.055 −0.004 0.008 0.135
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.004) (0.004) (0.004) (0.006)
Female 0.020 0.054 0.072 0.194 0.070 −0.061
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.002)
Birth data −0.081 −0.007 0.268 0.005 0.117 0.062
  (0.147) (0.161) (0.298) (0.291) (0.305) (0.351)
Mother age 0.002 0.001 0.006 −0.001 0.006 0.003
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Mother married 0.002 −0.004 0.022 0.000 0.018 0.002
  (0.003) (0.003) (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.008)
Mother immigrant 0.019 0.047 0.067 0.088 −0.002 0.030
  (0.020) (0.021) (0.039) (0.038) (0.040) (0.050)
No father information 0.011 0.004 −0.003 −0.014 −0.024 0.011
  (0.009) (0.010) (0.016) (0.016) (0.017) (0.017)
Father age −0.001 −0.001 −0.002 0.000 −0.001 0.002
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Father immigrant 0.026 0.026 0.037 0.027 −0.012 −0.007
  (0.009) (0.010) (0.020) (0.019) (0.020) (0.027)
First born 0.020 0.035 0.031 0.039 0.025 −0.001
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.003) (0.003) (0.003) (0.004)
Birth weight 0.007 0.006 0.001 −0.001 0.002 0.005
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.002) (0.001) (0.002) (0.002)
Alcohol when pregnant −0.006 −0.009 0.013 −0.000 −0.005 0.004
  (0.008) (0.008) (0.014) (0.014) (0.014) (0.015)
Tobacco when pregnant −0.012 −0.013 −0.006 0.003 0.000 −0.004
  (0.003) (0.004) (0.006) (0.006) (0.007) (0.008)
Observations 5,886,058 5,855,758 4,394,084 4,387,494 4,387,242 2,077,296
R 2 0.848 0.822 0.590 0.613 0.573 0.659
  1. Sources: North Carolina Education Research Data Center and North Carolina State Center for Health Statistics.
  2. All outcomes measured in standard deviation units. Standard errors in parentheses
  3. Regressions also include missing indicators, school-grade-year fixed effects, and family-year fixed effects