# Table 7 Bivariate probability of permanent layoff: men

XS S M L XL All firms
Shutdown rate 1.1319 1.1781 1.3252 1.0205 .9667 .7368
(.6124) a (.6890) a (.5541) b (.6317) (.3721) c (.3935) a
Lag of earnings −.0892 −.1124 −.1181 −.1251 −.1192 −.1179
(.0056) c (.0058) c (.0114) c (.0163) c (.0131) c (.0102) c
Age 35–49 −.0488 .0717 .0905 .0880 .0658
(.0067) c (.0127) c (.0127) c (.0181) c (.0151) c (.0110) c
Age 50+ .0393 .1765 .2456 .2804 .2712 .2292
(.0196) b (.0237) c (.0293) c (.0432) c (.0366) c (.0299) c
Married −.1877 −.1368 −.1229 −.1112 −.0987 −.1270
(.0058) c (.0069) c (.0078) c (.0075) c (.0095) c (.0098) c
Tenure −.1489 −.1362 −.1316 −.1237 −.1005 −.1320
(.0104) c (.0128) c (.0176) c (.0193) c (.0101) c (.0153) c
Tenure squared .0045 .0039 .0039 .0038 .0028 .0039
(.0004) c (.0005) c (.0006) c (.0007) c (.0003) c (.0005) c
Union .1571 .2080 .2045 .1980 .1548 .1551
(.0247) c (.0357) c (.0440) c (.0552) c (.0536) c (.0693) b
Atlantic .3809 .3096 .2920 .3091 .2318 .3213
(.0391) c (.0268) c (.0257) c (.0340) c (.0431) c (.0249) c
Quebec .1292 .0978 .0748 .0576 –.0432 .0831
(.0322) c (.0216) c (.0153) c (.0210) c (.0215) b (.0180) c
Prairie −.1128 −.0512 −.0246 .0142 −.0050 −.0194
(.0175) c (.0089) c (.0136) a (.0195) (.0315) (.0118)
BC .0600 .0701 .0643 .0238 .0190 .0630
(.0341) a (.0192) c (.0195) c (.0384) (.0393) (.0247) b
Constant −.1237 .0308 .0824 .2450 .2227 .1455
(.1161) (.0823) (.1102) (.1658) (.1542) (.1158)
Firm active estimates—exclusion restrictions
log RER jt −.1108 −.0573 .0657 −.1671 −.1428 −.0523
(.0526) b (.0800) (.1665) (.2014) (.9003) (.1162)
$$\log \overline {\text {wage bill}}_{ikjt}$$ .4065 .1746 .1184 .1228 .3395 .2850
(.0146) c (.0296) c (.0418) c (.0361) c (.0349) c (.0167) c
ρ (correlation) −.4272 −.4545 −.463 .8875 .9156 −.0583
(.0638) c (.1736) c (.0474) c (.0127) c (.0239) c (.1657)
LR test χ 2 (selection) 34.20 5.02 4.99 555.22 111.34 .1234
p value 0 .025 .025 0 0 .7254
Observation-censored 78,090 32,215 26,554 12,415 5864 155,138
Observations 856,229 1,046,321 1,464,844 1,095,370 2,733,141 7,195,905
logL −385,676.8 −342,000.6 −385,265.8 −217,645.1 −264,097.3 −1,691,035
1. Note: The reference group is Ontario for region, 25–35 for age, 2005 for year, and Construction for industry. The firm size classes are (XS) less than 5 employees, (S) 5–19 employees, (M) 20–99 employees, (L) 100–500 employees and (XL) 500+ employees. Clustered standard errors, in parentheses, account for within industry correlation
2. a, b, cStatistical significance at the 10, 5, and 1% levels, respectively