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Table 4 Probit model of overeducation status

From: The career prospects of overeducated Americans

  14 years 16 years 18+ years
Black 0.158*** (0.0555) 0.034 (0.0672) 0.107 (0.1045)
Hispanic 0.121* (0.0629) −0.082 (0.0697) −0.023 (0.0866)
Female 0.054 (0.0392) 0.125*** (0.0290) 0.105*** (0.0374)
Born in the USA 0.207** (0.0838) −0.016 (0.0625) 0.021 (0.0926)
AFQTa −0.132*** (0.0509) −0.148** (0.0622) −0.187* (0.0995)
Rotter Scale in 1979 0.009 (0.0076) 0.006 (0.0065) −0.003 (0.0077)
Sociability in 1985 −0.037 (0.0256) −0.028 (0.0218) 0.018 (0.0285)
GED (no HS diploma) −0.051 (0.0829) −0.282 (0.2361) −0.095 (0.2206)
Northeast −0.027 (0.0522) 0.003 (0.0354) −0.005 (0.0529)
South −0.010 (0.0416) 0.007 (0.0370) −0.008 (0.0452)
West −0.004 (0.0520) 0.006 (0.0426) −0.021 (0.0492)
Unemployment rate 0.015* (0.0093) 0.003 (0.0078) −0.019* (0.0099)
HH in SMSA −0.076 (0.0540) −0.006 (0.0428) 0.032 (0.0504)
Tenure (1000 weeks) 0.075 (0.0976) −0.058 (0.1017) 0.396*** (0.1176)
Work experience (1000 h) −0.005 (0.0062) −0.018*** (0.0056) 0.014* (0.0073)
Work experience2 (1000 h) 0.003 (0.0022) 0.003 (0.0019) −0.006** (0.0028)
Number of jobs 0.031* (0.0161) 0.053*** (0.0140) −0.031* (0.0175)
Total unemp. (weeks.) 0.002*** (0.0006) 0.000 (0.0008) 0.002 (0.0014)
Occupational hazards 0.129*** (0.0328) 0.279*** (0.0415) 0.223** (0.0897)
χ 2   201.53   377.76   160.54
LL   −1738   −2235.79   −816.98
Observations   3125   4064   1763
  1. Model also includes controls for industry, age, mother and father’s education level in 1979, a dummy for living with both parents in 1979, and a dummy for living in an urban area at the time of interview
  2. Unemployment rate (by region) corresponds to the annual unemployment rate for each Census region (BLS Local Area Unemployment Statistics data)
  3. Entries correspond to marginal effects (standard errors in parentheses)
  4. aValues converted to Z-scores
  5. * p<0.10,** p<0.05,*** p<0.01