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Table 2 The wage penalty of field-of-study mismatch and overqualification

From: Field-of-study mismatch and overqualification: labour market correlates and their wage penalty

Country Field-of-study mismatch with well-matched qualifications Overqualification with well-matched field Field-of-study mismatch with overqualification
Austria 0.00 (0.02) −0.14*** (0.02) −0.22*** (0.03)
Canada −0.02 (0.02) −0.24*** (0.02) −0.33*** (0.02)
Cyprusa, b −0.06 (0.03) −0.24*** (0.05) −0.37*** (0.05)
Czech Republic 0.00 (0.03) −0.19*** (0.04) −0.22*** (0.04)
Denmark 0.02 (0.01) −0.18*** (0.02) −0.21*** (0.02)
England/N. Ireland (UK) −0.01 (0.02) −0.24*** (0.03) −0.26*** (0.03)
Estonia −0.08** (0.03) −0.24*** (0.03) −0.43*** (0.03)
Finland 0.04* (0.02) −0.14*** (0.02) −0.19*** (0.03)
Flanders (Belgium) −0.01 (0.02) −0.09*** (0.03) −0.17*** (0.02)
France 0.03 (0.01) −0.16*** (0.02) −0.16*** (0.02)
Germany 0.00 (0.02) −0.17*** (0.03) −0.33*** (0.04)
Ireland −0.10*** (0.03) −0.27*** (0.03) −0.34*** (0.03)
Italy −0.09** (0.03) −0.13** (0.05) −0.17*** (0.04)
Japan 0.04 (0.03) −0.21*** (0.03) −0.24*** (0.03)
Korea −0.03 (0.03) −0.22*** (0.06) −0.30*** (0.05)
Netherlands 0.00 (0.02) −0.18*** (0.02) −0.30*** (0.04)
Norway 0.01 (0.02) −0.16*** (0.02) −0.18*** (0.02)
Poland 0.00 (0.03) −0.25*** (0.04) −0.31*** (0.04)
Russian Federationc −0.04 (0.04) −0.08 (0.04) 0.00 (0.05)
Slovak Republic −0.03 (0.03) −0.20*** (0.04) −0.20*** (0.05)
Spain 0.01 (0.03) −0.22*** (0.04) −0.26*** (0.03)
Sweden 0.05** (0.01) −0.11*** (0.02) −0.16*** (0.02)
USA 0.01 (0.03) −0.25*** (0.04) −0.30*** (0.04)
Country average −0.01* (0.01) −0.19*** (0.01) −0.25*** (0.01)
  1. Estimates from regression models on log(wages). Reference category is well-matched workers who are not overqualified. Models control for age, age2, experience, experience2, tenure, type of contract (temporary/regular, full/part-time), public/NGO/private sector of the firm, firm size, numeracy skills and field-of-study. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01. *** p < 0.001. Source: Own calculations from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012)
  2. a, b, c See notes to Table 1