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Table 1 Incidence of field-of-study mismatch and overqualification

From: Field-of-study mismatch and overqualification: labour market correlates and their wage penalty

Country Field-of-study mismatch with well-matched qualifications Overqualification with well-matched field Field-of-study mismatch with overqualification N
Austria 18.1 (0.85) 14.2 (0.76) 9.7 (0.72) 2523
Canada 21.3 (0.56) 13.2 (0.48) 15.8 (0.59) 10,615
Cyprusa, b 28.7 (1.23) 8.7 (0.78) 9.7 (0.75) 1508
Czech Republic 27.6 (1.26) 11.1 (0.97) 10.3 (0.85) 2612
Denmark 24.5 (0.73) 8.5 (0.54) 10.6 (0.61) 3666
England/N. Ireland (UK) 30.1 (0.88) 11.8 (0.72) 19.5 (1.03) 3714
Estonia 22.2 (0.70) 16.7 (0.66) 12.9 (0.58) 3217
Finland 16.1 (0.66) 10.9 (0.65) 6.5 (0.55) 2706
Flanders (Belgium) 29.4 (1.04) 7.9 (0.59) 9.1 (0.57) 2177
France 24.2 (0.65) 19.5 (0.68) 16.6 (0.63) 2785
Germany 15.7 (0.68) 14.6 (0.81) 9.6 (0.59) 2817
Ireland 22.0 (1.02) 13.2 (0.91) 19.1 (1.15) 1833
Italy 34.1 (1.34) 6.8 (0.89) 15.3 (1.06) 1450
Japan 26.2 (1.09) 16.9 (0.78) 18.6 (0.87) 2058
Korea 34.9 (1.13) 7.5 (0.61) 15.1 (0.86) 1967
Netherlands 24.3 (0.89) 8.8 (0.65) 9.5 (0.56) 2272
Norway 22.1 (0.90) 9.5 (0.59) 11.3 (0.60) 2687
Poland 30.6 (1.11) 7.9 (0.67) 9.7 (0.70) 3393
Russian Federationc 27.7 (1.50) 14.5 (0.86) 14.0 (1.77) 1599
Slovak Republic 29.4 (1.05) 10.5 (0.77) 8.6 (0.62) 2408
Spain 23.6 (1.17) 10.2 (0.84) 19.5 (1.13) 1539
Sweden 21.8 (0.80) 8.6 (0.53) 10.8 (0.67) 2421
USA 29.6 (1.14) 10.9 (0.90) 15.4 (0.88) 1805
Country average 25.4 (0.21) 11.4 (0.15) 12.9 (0.18) 2773
  1. Incidence is calculated over dependent workers. Source: Own calculations from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) (2012)
  2. aFootnote by Turkey: The information in this document with reference to “Cyprus” relates to the southern part of the Island. There is no single authority representing both Turkish and Greek Cypriot people on the Island. Turkey recognises the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC). Until a lasting and equitable solution is found within the context of United Nations, Turkey shall preserve its position concerning the “Cyprus issue”
  3. bFootnote by all the European Union Member States of the OECD and the European Union: The Republic of Cyprus is recognised by all members of the United Nations with the exception of Turkey. The information in this document relates to the area under the effective control of the Government of the Republic of Cyprus
  4. cThe data from the Russian Federation are preliminary and may be subject to change. Readers should note that the sample for the Russian Federation does not include the population of the Moscow municipal area. The data published, therefore, do not represent the entire resident population aged 16–65 in Russia but rather the population of Russia excluding the population residing in the Moscow municipal area. More detailed information regarding the data from the Russian Federation as well as that of other countries can be found in the Technical Report of the Survey of Adult Skills (OECD 2013a)