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Table 6 Skill mismatch by socio-demographic groups

From: A new measure of skill mismatch: theory and evidence from PIAAC

  Literacy Numeracy
  Under-skilled Over-skilled Under-skilled Over-skilled
Men 0.095 0.184 0.081 0.201
  (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006)
Women 0.090 0.138 0.094 0.131
  (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006)
Non-graduates 0.106 0.132 0.102 0.139
  (0.005) (0.006) (0.005) (0.006)
Graduates 0.076 0.202 0.068 0.204
  (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.008)
Age <45 0.083 0.186 0.080 0.185
  (0.005) (0.005) (0.005) (0.006)
Age ≥45 0.108 0.125 0.098 0.139
  (0.005) (0.004) (0.005) (0.005)
Natives 0.082 0.169 0.078 0.172
  (0.004) (0.005) (0.005) (0.005)
Foreigners 0.183 0.100 0.171 0.121
  (0.008) (0.006) (0.008) (0.006)
  1. Shares of under- and over-skilled workers. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses. See Appendix for details on the bootstrap procedure. Source: OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)