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Table 4 Skill mismatch by country—numeracy

From: A new measure of skill mismatch: theory and evidence from PIAAC

Country Under-skilled Well-matched Over-skilled Country Under-skilled Well-matched Over-skilled
Austria 0.018 0.834 0.148 Korea 0.056 0.792 0.152
  (0.043) (0.060) (0.041)   (0.024) (0.035) (0.031)
Belgiuma 0.059 0.859 0.082 The Netherlands 0.038 0.904 0.058
  (0.017) (0.021) (0.019)   (0.013) (0.021) (0.015)
Canada 0.028 0.874 0.098 Norway 0.074 0.848 0.078
  (0.007) (0.015) (0.012)   (0.018) (0.028) (0.021)
Czech Republic 0.038 0.838 0.124 Poland 0.107 0.739 0.155
  (0.023) (0.034) (0.028)   (0.025) (0.037) (0.027)
Denmark 0.062 0.842 0.096 Russia 0.065 0.816 0.119
  (0.013) (0.019) (0.015)   (0.044) (0.050) (0.038)
Estonia 0.031 0.910 0.059 Slovak Republic 0.043 0.782 0.176
  (0.010) (0.019) (0.017)   (0.027) (0.033) (0.031)
Finland 0.040 0.897 0.063 Spain 0.151 0.599 0.250
  (0.008) (0.018) (0.016)   (0.033) (0.038) (0.035)
France 0.043 0.892 0.065 Sweden 0.075 0.843 0.081
  (0.010) (0.019) (0.016)   (0.025) (0.031) (0.022)
Germany 0.105 0.653 0.243 UKb 0.069 0.822 0.108
  (0.033) (0.041) (0.040)   (0.017) (0.028) (0.024)
Ireland 0.121 0.726 0.153 USA 0.139 0.598 0.263
  (0.034) (0.043) (0.038)   (0.038) (0.038) (0.042)
Italy 0.088 0.771 0.141 Total 0.087 0.746 0.167
  (0.030) (0.039) (0.030)   (0.070) (0.137) (0.079)
Japan 0.035 0.894 0.071     
  (0.011) (0.020) (0.018)     
  1. Source: OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
  2. aOnly the Flanders region is included in the survey
  3. bOnly England and Northern Ireland are included