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Table 3 Skill mismatch by country—literacy

From: A new measure of skill mismatch: theory and evidence from PIAAC

Country Under-skilled Well-matched Over-skilled Country Under-skilled Well-matched Over-skilled
Austria 0.022 0.878 0.100 Korea 0.057 0.758 0.185
  (0.041) (0.540) (0.041)   (0.025) (0.032) (0.029)
Belgiuma 0.058 0.855 0.087 The Netherlands 0.040 0.893 0.067
  (0.016) (0.022) (0.019)   (0.012) (0.019) (0.016)
Canada 0.024 0.880 0.095 Norway 0.058 0.833 0.109
  (0.006) (0.013) (0.013)   (0.022) (0.028) (0.023)
Czech Republic 0.042 0.818 0.140 Poland 0.103 0.778 0.119
  (0.021) (0.032) (0.029)   (0.026) (0.037) (0.030)
Denmark 0.047 0.839 0.114 Russia 0.100 0.793 0.107
  (0.011) (0.018) (0.014)   (0.042) (0.047) (0.036)
Estonia 0.042 0.892 0.066 Slovak Republic 0.102 0.777 0.120
  (0.013) (0.023) (0.019)   (0.025) (0.030) (0.026)
Finland 0.030 0.900 0.070 Spain 0.171 0.580 0.249
  (0.008) (0.019) (0.018)   (0.036) (0.038) (0.039)
France 0.044 0.897 0.059 Sweden 0.091 0.810 0.099
  (0.012) (0.021) (0.015)   (0.025) (0.033) (0.022)
Germany 0.097 0.670 0.233 UKb 0.067 0.825 0.108
  (0.036) (0.045) (0.041)   (0.017) (0.024) (0.020)
Ireland 0.117 0.740 0.142 USA 0.144 0.612 0.244
  (0.032) (0.042) (0.033)   (0.039) (0.037) (0.042)
Italy 0.102 0.766 0.132 Total 0.093 0.746 0.162
  (0.030) (0.042) (0.032)   (0.072) (0.133) (0.073)
Japan 0.031 0.876 0.093     
  (0.011) (0.021) (0.018)     
  1. Bootstrapped standard errors in parentheses. See Appendix for details on the bootstrap procedure. Source: OECD Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC)
  2. aOnly the Flanders region is included in the survey
  3. bOnly England and Northern Ireland are included