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Table 7 Employment Statistics by Hukou and Current Residence, 2005 Census

From: Do employers prefer migrant workers? Evidence from a Chinese job board

  All Urban Residents in Major Cities Residents of Xiamen
  With Local Hukou With Non-local Hukou With Local Hukou With Non-local Hukou
  (1) (2) (3) (4)
A. All working-age persons
 Age
  18–25 9% 15% 12% 18%
  26–35 21% 33% 27% 42%
  36–45 28% 26% 28% 24%
  46–55 28% 17% 23% 12%
  56–65 13% 8% 10% 3%
 Education
  Primary (6 years or less) 7% 20% 21% 26%
  Junior Middle School (9 years) 31% 44% 25% 40%
  High School (12 years) 34% 21% 27% 21%
  College or Junior Technical School (15 years) 16% 8% 13% 7%
  University Degree (16 years or more) 12% 7% 14% 5%
 Employment status     
  Employed 62% 77% 68% 83%
  Not employed 38% 23% 32% 17%
 Sources of income     
  Labor market 61% 76% 67% 81%
  Public transfers 23% 6% 13% 3%
  Capital income 3% 3% 3% 2%
  Family members 13% 15% 16% 14%
 Social insurance coverage
  UI covered 44% 18% 38% 21%
  Pension covered 72% 31% 60% 30%
  Medical insurance covered 69% 42% 73% 39%
 Share of the population 49% 51% 44% 56%
B. Workers only     
 Weekly working hours (mean) 44.10 49.14 46.49 54.89
  1–39 hours 4% 8% 8% 6%
  40 hours 66% 35% 47% 21%
  41–56 hours 23% 39% 33% 41%
  57 hours or more 7% 18% 12% 33%
 Employer type
  Public1 62% 22% 44% 15%
  Private2 38% 78% 56% 85%
 Nature of work contract     
  Fixed term 34% 33% 43% 37%
  Infinite term 40% 15% 23% 7%
  No contract 27% 52% 35% 57%
 Duration of contract if fixed term
  1 year or below 59% 73% 62% 71%
  1-2 years 12% 10% 13% 10%
  2-3 years 19% 11% 21% 12%
  More than 3 years 9% 6% 5% 6%
 Share of the population 43% 57% 39% 61%
  1. Data are from the 2005 Census of China, 1% sample, persons aged 15–65, healthy, current living in urban regions, excluding students. All rural hukou individuals are regarded as without local hukou in the urban area. Major cities are the four municipalities directly under the jurisdiction of the central government (Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjing and Chongqing) plus the 15 subprovincial cities: Changchun, Chendgu, Dalian, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Harbin, Jinan, Nanjing, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuhan, Xiamen, and Xi’an. Column 1 (LH) shows characteristics of all working-age persons who have a permanent residence permit in their current city of residence. Column (2) (NLH) is for the remainder of urban residents, whose hukou registration is elsewhere; most but not all of these persons are rural–urban migrants from poorer parts of China. Columns 3 and 4 replicate columns 1 and 2 for the city of Xiamen only. Here “Public” employer type refers to SOEs, government and collectives, where collectives play a minimal role in urban areas; “Private” employer type refers to for-profit firms, self-employed and other