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Table 2 Demographic, socio-economic and health characteristics

From: Are public sector workers different? Cross-European evidence from elderly workers and retirees

  Workers Retirees
  All Private Public All Private Public
Prosocial (%) 15.8 14.4 18.0 15.5 12.8 20.9
Age       
Mean 56.5 56.4 56.6 67.7 68.1 66.9
Gender       
% Female 45.0 41.4 49.3 46.1 45.6 47.0
Couple (%) 74.1 74.4 73.7 68.4 67.5 70.1
Education (%)       
No schooling 1.3 1.4 1.0 5.0 6.6 1.9
Primary education 8.3 9.9 5.6 26.4 30.8 17.5
Lower secondary 15.2 17.4 11.7 17.6 18.6 15.8
Upper secondary 40.5 45.6 32.1 32.2 32.5 31.6
Post-secondary non-tertiary 3.9 3.6 4.5 1.8 1.3 3.0
First stage of tertiary 29.5 21.4 42.6 15.8 9.5 28.3
Second stage of tertiary education 1.2 0.6 2.2 0.6 0.2 1.4
Still in school     0.1 0.2 0.1
Other 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5
Limited activities (%)       
Severely limited 6.9 7.7 5.7 12.9 13.1 12.5
Limited, but not severely 21.5 21.9 20.8 30.6 32.1 27.8
Not limited 71.6 70.4 73.5 56.5 54.8 59.8
Income       
Mean 40.2 38.4 43.2 30.8 28.2 35.9
Location (%)       
A big city 14.6 15.1 13.8 13.1 12.8 13.8
The suburbs 14.1 13.2 15.6 13.2 12.5 14.7
A large town 13.8 12.5 16.1 13.2 12.2 15.3
A small town 23.3 24.3 21.6 26.5 27.4 24.6
Rural area or village 25.1 26.2 23.3 26.1 27.2 24.0
Missing 9.0 8.7 9.6 7.9 8.0 7.7
Occupation (%)       
Legislator, senior official or manager 9.9 7.8 13.4 7.1 5.5 10.2
Professional 13.6 6.6 25.1 8.8 3.5 19.4
Technician or associate professional 15.9 14.8 17.8 13.4 11.4 17.4
Clerk 17.4 16.9 18.4 15.9 14.6 18.5
Service worker and shop and market sale 14.8 16.6 11.9 11.4 11.2 11.9
Skilled agricultural or fishery worker 1.5 2.0 0.7 3.6 4.9 1.0
Craft and related trades worker 9.9 14.6 2.4 12.3 16.3 4.3
Plant and machine operator or assembler 7.1 10.2 1.9 9.8 12.3 4.7
Elementary occupation 9.5 10.5 7.9 17.0 20.3 10.6
Armed forces 0.3 0.0 0.7 0.8 0.0 2.2
Hours worked per week 35.8 36.2 35.1    
Time pressure due to heavy workload       
Strongly agree 17.2 18.0 15.9    
Agree 34.3 34.9 33.2    
Disagree 35.8 34.4 37.9    
Strongly disagree 12.8 12.6 13.0    
Job salary adequate       
Strongly agree 10.2 10.5 9.7    
Agree 45.7 45.5 46.0    
Disagree 32.2 31.8 32.8    
Strongly disagree 12.0 12.2 11.6    
Club (%) 28.7 27.4 31.0 21.9 20.1 25.50
  1. For workers, there are statistically significant differences across the two sectors in all of the characteristics, with the exception of age, couple, limited activities, time pressure and job salary adequate. For retirees, the only exception is gender. Income is in 1,000 euros 2007 Germany PPP.