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Table 9 Falsification test, effect of teacher tenure on placebo variables, SASS data

From: How do teachers respond to tenure?

Dependent ariable (1) Student tardiness (2) Students unprepared (3) Students dropping out (4) Teacher salary
Before Tenure Evaluation 0.016 0.014 0.021 0.461
  (0.023) (0.016) (0.028) (0.651)
First Year With Tenure −0.022 0.006 0.007 −0.037
  (0.021) (0.019) (0.020) (0.357)
Two Or More Years With Tenure −0.021 0.010 −0.024 0.200
  (0.027) (0.023) (0.025) (0.633)
Black 0.032* 0.009 −0.045** 1.341***
  (0.017) (0.015) (0.021) (0.378)
Hispanic 0.004 −0.014 −0.066*** 1.231*
  (0.014) (0.012) (0.020) (0.688)
Other Race 0.052** 0.039 −0.079*** 3.167**
  (0.026) (0.032) (0.025) (1.295)
Male −0.041*** −0.033*** −0.196*** −0.024
  (0.013) (0.008) (0.014) (0.341)
Age 0.001* −0.001 −0.002*** 0.415***
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.028)
Salary ($1000s) −0.001 0.001 0.001  
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)  
Student-Teacher Ratio −0.005** −0.005** −0.018*** 0.192***
  (0.002) (0.002) (0.004) (0.046)
Free Lunch Percentage −0.202*** −0.277*** −0.028 −2.078***
  (0.024) (0.022) (0.044) (0.618)
Expenditures Per Student 0.001 0.002 −0.004* 0.315**
  (0.005) (0.002) (0.002) (0.155)
Collective Bargaining −0.002 −0.002 −0.006 0.574
  (0.023) (0.018) (0.027) (0.557)
Second Year of Teaching −0.038** −0.044*** 0.011 0.652
  (0.017) (0.015) (0.014) (0.448)
Third Year of Teaching −0.024 −0.043** −0.001 0.390
  (0.029) (0.020) (0.030) (0.774)
Fourth Year of Teaching −0.042 −0.046** 0.046 1.460
  (0.038) (0.023) (0.029) (1.021)
Fifth Year of Teaching −0.050 −0.033 0.067* 2.323**
  (0.037) (0.023) (0.033) (0.955)
Sixth Year of Teaching −0.053 −0.028 0.071 3.045***
  (0.040) (0.026) (0.044) (0.980)
Seventh Year of Teaching −0.026 −0.032 0.064 3.931***
  (0.038) (0.029) (0.044) (1.139)
R-squared 0.045 0.080 0.065 0.453
Observations 15,120 15,120 15,120 15,120
  1. Standard errors in parentheses, clustered by state.
  2. State effects and teaching year effects are included in the above regressions.
  3. *p < 0.10, **p < 0.05, ***p < 0.01.
  4. Note 1: Sample sizes rounded to nearest 10 for NCES confidentiality purposes.
  5. Note 2: For columns 1 – 3, teachers are asked if those issues are serious or moderate problems.