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Table 5 Robustness check IV: the workload hypothesis

From: Absenteeism, unemployment and employment protection legislation: evidence from Italy

  (1) (2) (3) (4)
Unemployment rate -0.035*** -0.038*** -0.045*** -0.048***
  (0.006) (0.007) (0.007) (0.007)
Small firm: 11–15 employees 0.105* 0.133** 0.085 0.111*
  (0.060) (0.063) (0.062) (0.063)
Small firm: 11–15 employees * Unemployment 0.007 0.007 0.008 0.008
  (0.006) (0.006) (0.006) (0.006)
Large firm (>15 employees)    0.543*** 0.603***
    (0.054) (0.059)
Large firm (>15 employees) * Unemployment    0.014*** 0.017***
    (0.004) (0.005)
Lag ln(Wage)   -0.740***   -0.924***
   (0.109)   (0.088)
Female -0.135*** -0.230*** 0.243*** 0.091*
  (0.049) (0.058) (0.048) (0.052)
Age -0.079*** -0.075*** -0.099*** -0.094***
  (0.015) (0.016) (0.014) (0.013)
Age squared 0.001*** 0.001*** 0.002*** 0.002***
  (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000)
Blue-Collar 0.624*** 0.503*** 0.696*** 0.518***
  (0.080) (0.067) (0.076) (0.057)
Tenure 0.104*** 0.071*** 0.149*** 0.124***
  (0.015) (0.017) (0.010) (0.011)
Tenure squared -0.008*** -0.006*** -0.010*** -0.008***
  (0.001) (0.001) (0.001) (0.001)
Actual experience -0.015** -0.019*** -0.013** -0.016**
  (0.006) (0.007) (0.006) (0.006)
Constant 2.404*** 5.176*** 2.316*** 5.758***
  (0.309) (0.578) (0.322) (0.542)
Observations 176,008 146,199 574,074 483,530
  1. Notes: WHIP dataset. OLS estimates are reported. The omitted category is Very small firms: 5–10 employees. Further controls are the same used in Table 2. Standard errors are allowed for within provincial correlation. The symbols ***, **, * indicate that coefficients are statistically significant, respectively, at the 1, 5, and 10 percent level.