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Table 1 Summary statistics

From: Absenteeism, unemployment and employment protection legislation: evidence from Italy

  All Small firms Large firms
Variable Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.
Rate of absenteeism 2.25 6.85 1.82 6.39 2.44 7.03
Absent (dummy 0/1) 0.21 0.41 0.16 0.37 0.23 0.42
Small Firm (≤15) 0.31 0.46     
Unemployment rate 8.99 6.73 9.55 7.02 8.75 6.59
Proxy unemployment 38.5 10.3 39.5 10.5 38.1 10.2
Female 0.25 0.43 0.26 0.44 0.25 0.43
Age 35.9 10.5 34.7 10.30 36.5 10.5
Blue-Collar 0.89 0.31 0.88 0.32 0.89 0.31
Tenure 4.07 4.40 3.45 4.07 4.35 4.51
Actual experience 7.55 4.86 6.71 4.67 7.93 4.90
ln(Wage) 4.05 0.33 3.99 0.29 4.07 0.34
Mining and quarrying 0.004 0.06 0.004 0.07 0.003 0.06
Manufacturing 0.51 0.50 0.43 0.50 0.55 0.50
Construction 0.08 0.27 0.15 0.36 0.05 0.22
Commerce 0.18 0.38 0.23 0.42 0.16 0.36
Hotels and restaurants 0.06 0.24 0.10 0.30 0.05 0.21
Transport and communications 0.08 0.27 0.05 0.21 0.09 0.29
Financial intermediation 0.07 0.25 0.02 0.14 0.09 0.28
Business services 0.01 0.09 0.01 0.07 0.01 0.09
Other social/personal service act. 0.011 0.11 0.01 0.12 0.01 0.10
North-West 0.34 0.47 0.30 0.46 0.36 0.48
North-East 0.27 0.45 0.26 0.44 0.28 0.45
Centre 0.18 0.38 0.19 0.40 0.17 0.38
South 0.15 0.36 0.17 0.38 0.14 0.34
Islands 0.06 0.24 0.07 0.26 0.05 0.23
N 574,074 176,008 398,066
  1. Notes: WHIP dataset. We also have year dummies in our sample.