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Table 12 Most challenging course

From: What happens after enrollment? An analysis of the time path of racial differences in GPA and major choice

  Actual Random Ratio Observations
Freshmen     
Overall 0.694 0.474 1.464 786
Female 0.688 0.439 1.567 455
Black 0.758 0.448 1.692 154
SAT one standard deviation below the mean 0.674 0.427 1.578 155
Sophomores     
Overall 0.717 0.453 1.582 706
Female 0.698 0.420 1.662 396
Black 0.761 0.394 1.931 142
SAT one standard deviation below the mean 0.654 0.365 1.791 127
  1. Note: “Actual” indicates the fraction of students (in freshman or sophomore year) who listed natural science, engineering, or economics courses as their most challenging ones. “Random” denotes the probability of choosing a natural science, engineering, or economics course as most challenging if we randomly chose among the courses taken. Finally, “Ratio” indicates “ Actual” over “Random”.